Develop a range of instructional and assessment methods and test preparation methods. Instruction Linda Gojakformer NCTM President, noted that "Over the last three decades a variety of instructional strategies have been introduced with a goal of increasing student achievement in mathematics. Such strategies include individualized instruction, cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry, scaffolding, computer-assisted instruction, and problem solving" with the flipped classroom being a recent addition to the list para. Blended learning is also on the rise, which adds online learning to traditional classrooms.
History[ edit ] For the past several decades, appraisal theory has developed and evolved as a prominent theory in the field of communication and psychology by testing affect and emotion.
Magda Arnold and Richard Lazarus, amongst others who have contributed appraisal theories. The question studied under appraisal theories is why people react to things differently.
Even when presented with the same, or a similar situation all people will react in slightly different ways based on their perception of the situation. These perceptions elicit various emotions that are specific to each person.
About 30 years ago, psychologists and researchers began to categorize these emotions into different groups. This is where cognitive appraisal theory stems from.
They decided to categorize these emotional reaction behaviors as appraisals. The two main theories of appraisal are the structural model and the process model. Specifically, Arnold wanted to "introduce the idea of emotion differentiation by postulating that emotions such as fearangerand excitement could be distinguished by different excitatory phenomena" Arnold, For example, if a student studies hard all semester in a difficult class and passes the tough mid-term exam with an "A", the felt emotion of happiness will motivate the student to keep studying hard for that class.
Emotion is a difficult concept to define as emotions are constantly changing for each individual, but Arnold's continued advancements and changing theory led her to keep researching her work within appraisal theory.
Furthermore, the s proved to be difficult as fellow researchers challenged her theory with questions concerning the involvement of psycho physiological factors and the psychological experiences at the Loyola Symposium on Feelings and Emotions.
Richard Lazarus[ edit ] Following close to Magda Arnold in terms of appraisal theory examination was Richard Lazarus who continued to research emotions through appraisal theory before his death in Since he began researching in the s, this concept evolves and expands to include new research, methods, and procedures.
Although Arnold had a difficult time with questions, Lazarus and other researchers discussed the biopsychological components of the theory at the Loyola Symposium "Towards a Cognitive Theory of Emotion".
Second, what are the determining antecedent conditions of these cognitions. Moreover, Lazarus specified two major types of appraisal methods which sit at the crux of the appraisal method: To simplify Lazarus's theory and emphasize his stress on cognition, as you are experiencing an event, your thought must precede the arousal and emotion which happen simultaneously.
You are about to give a speech in front of 50 of your peers. Your mouth goes dry, your heart beat quickens, your palms sweat, and your legs begin to shake and at the same time you experience fear. Structural model[ edit ] Transactional Model of Stress and Coping of Richard Lazarus The structural model of appraisal helps to explain the relation between appraisals and the emotions they elicit.
This model involves examination of the appraisal process as well as examination of how different appraisals influence which emotions are experienced. According to Lazarus theories of emotion involve a relational aspect, a motivational aspect, and a cognitive aspect Lazarus, The relational aspect involves the relationship between a person and the environment and suggests that emotions always involve an interaction between the two Lazarus, The motivational aspect involves an assessment of the status of one's goals and is the aspect of the evaluation of a situation in which a person determines how relevant the situation is to his or her goals Lazarus, Finally, the cognitive component involves one's appraisal of the situation, or an evaluation of how relevant and significant a situation is to one's life Lazarus, Lazarus suggests that different emotions are elicited when situations are evaluated differently according to these three categories.
In order to evaluate each emotion individually, however, a structural model of appraisal is necessary Lazarus, This model allows for the individual components of the appraisal process to be determined for each emotion.
In addition, this model allows for the evaluation of how and where the appraisal processes differ for different emotions Lazarus, Primary appraisal[ edit ] The appraisal process is broken up into two different categories, primary appraisal and secondary appraisal Lazarus, In a person's primary appraisal, he or she evaluates two aspects of a situation: The second aspect of an individual's primary appraisal of a situation is the evaluation of motivational congruence.
When evaluating the motivational congruence of a situation, an individual answers the question, "Is this situation congruent or incongruent consistent or inconsistent with my goals?
Secondary appraisal[ edit ] People's emotions are also influenced by their secondary appraisal of situations. Secondary appraisal involves people's evaluation of their resources and options for coping Lazarus, A person can hold herself, another, or a group of other people accountable for the situation at hand.Supervision Models Process And Practices Social Work Essay Introduction.
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