Pamela was the first popular novel to be based on a courtship as told from the perspective of the heroine. Unlike many of the novels of the time, Pamela had a happy ending, when after Mr. B attempts unsuccessfully to seduce and rape Pamela multiple times, he eventually rewards her virtue by sincerely proposing an equitable marriage to her. The book was one of the first bestsellers, with five editions printed in the first eleven months of release.
The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulfhandwritten in half-uncial script: We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings In the fifth century, the Anglo-Saxons settled Britain as the Roman economy and administration collapsed.
A few short inscriptions reading writing and romance wikipedia english the early period of Old English were written using a runic script. Its grammar was similar to that of modern Germanand its closest relative is Old Frisian.
Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs had many more inflectional endings and formsand word order was much freer than in Modern English. Modern English has case forms in pronouns he, him, his and a few verb endings I have, he hasbut Old English had case endings in nouns as well, and verbs had more person and number endings.
Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … Nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with Danes and then with Normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing.
John of Trevisaca. Middle English is often arbitrarily defined as beginning with the conquest of England by William the Conqueror inbut it developed further in the period from — First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norsea North Germanic language.
Norse influence was strongest in the Northeastern varieties of Old English spoken in the Danelaw area around York, which was the centre of Norse colonisation; today these features are still particularly present in Scots and Northern English.
However the centre of norsified English seems to have been in the Midlands around Lindseyand after CE when Lindsey was reincorporated into the Anglo-Saxon polity, Norse features spread from there into English varieties that had not been in intense contact with Norse speakers.
Some elements of Norse influence that persist in all English varieties today are the pronouns beginning with th- they, them, their which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- hie, him, hera.
The Norman language in England eventually developed into Anglo-Norman. Because Norman was spoken primarily by the elites and nobles, while the lower classes continued speaking Anglo-Saxon, the influence of Norman consisted of introducing a wide range of loanwords related to politics, legislation and prestigious social domains.
The distinction between nominative and accusative case was lost except in personal pronouns, the instrumental case was dropped, and the use of the genitive case was limited to describing possession.
The inflectional system regularised many irregular inflectional forms,  and gradually simplified the system of agreement, making word order less flexible. By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and Norman features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
Early Modern English Main article: Early Modern English Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shiftshowing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift —inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation.
It was a chain shiftmeaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system. Mid and open vowels were raisedand close vowels were broken into diphthongs. For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today.
The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages. Aroundthe Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documentsand a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standarddeveloped from the dialects of London and the East Midlands.
InWilliam Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English. Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.
The Foxes haue holes and the birds of the ayre haue nests  This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure replacement with Subject-Verb-Object word order, and the use of of instead of the non-possessive genitiveand the introduction of loanwords from French ayre and word replacements bird originally meaning "nestling" had replaced OE fugol.
Spread of Modern English By the late 18th century, the British Empire had facilitated the spread of English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance. Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language.
English also facilitated worldwide international communication. In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.Eliminating these from the calculations, the reading score for the Simple English Wikipedia came in at , lower than the goal of In fact, % of the articles scored lower than 80, and % were below the score needed to be considered Standard reading material.
English has ceased to be an "English language" in the sense of there is an advantage for learners of English reading in learning the specific sound aware of the primacy of morpheme representation in English may help learners learn more efficiently to read and Language family: Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, Anglic, English.
Aug 10, · READING, WRITING AND ROMANCE is the latest in the string of Hallmark Channel romantic comedies in which an arts professional takes a temporary job teaching high school and discovers his true vocation of helping to inspire youngsters/10().
"Science fiction" is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term originally to cover what we would today call ‘hard’ science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to already known facts (as of the date of writing) was the substrate on which the story was to be built, and if the story was also to.
Reading is what we do when we understand writing. More fully, it a cognitive process of understanding information represented by printed or written language.  It is a way of getting information and insights about something that is written. I am an experienced writer, editor and English Teacher with a passion for literature, writing, and all things pop-culture.
My writing credits include novels short fiction, blogs, and over 1, book reviews as a Staff Reviewer for RT Book Reviews.