At the helm were military leaders such as General Francisco Franco, who were conservatives in all essential respects. When the civil war ended, Franco was so deeply entrenched that the Falange stood no chance; in this strongly authoritarian regime, there was no room for political opposition.
Spain occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian peninsula, with Portugal on its western border. Other entities in Iberia are the Principality of Andorra in the Pyrenees and Gibraltar, which is under British sovereignty and is located on the south coast.
The Pyrenees range separates Spain from France. Spain also holds two cities, Ceuta and Melilla, on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco.
The people of hamlets, villages, towns, and cities—the basic political units of the Spanish population—and sometimes even neighborhoods barrios hold local identities that are rooted not only in differences of local geography and microclimate but also in perceived cultural differences made concrete in folklore and symbolic usages.
Throughout rural Spain, despite the strength of localism, there is also a perception of shared culture in rural zones called comarcas. The comarca is a purely cultural and economic unit, without political or any other official identity. In what are known as market communities in other parts of the world, villages or towns in a Spanish comarca patronize the same markets and fairs, worship at the same regional shrines in times of shared need such as droughtwear similar traditional dress, speak the language similarly, intermarry, and celebrate some of the same festivals at places commonly regarded as central or important.
The comarca is a community of concrete relationships; larger regional identities are more easily characterized as imagined but emerge from a tradition of local difference and acquire some of their strength from that tradition.
This image of variety is itself a shared element of Spanish identity. The populations least likely to feel Spanish are Catalans and Basques, although these large, complex regional populations are by no means unanimous in their views.
The Basque language is unrelated to any living language or known extinct ones; this fact is the principal touchstone of a Basque sense of separateness. Even though many other measures of difference can be questioned, Basque separatism, where it is endorsed, is fueled by the experience of political repression in the twentieth century in particular.
There has never been an independent Basque state apart from Spain or France. The Catalan language, like Spanish, is a Romance language, lacking the mysterious distinction that Basque has.
The population had increased significantly in every previous decade of the twentieth century, rising from under nineteen million in The Catalan and Valencian provinces including the major cities of Barcelona and Valenciaalong with the Balearic Islands, account for about 30 percent of the population, Galicia for about 7 percent, and Basque Country for about 5 percent.
These are not numbers of speakers of the minority languages, however, as the Catalan, Gallego, and Basque provinces all hold diverse populations and speech communities.
Two of the minority languages of the nation—Gallego and Catalan—are also Romance languages, derived from Latin in their respective regions just as Castilian Spanish hereafter "Spanish" was.
These Romance languages supplanted earlier tribal ones which, except for Basque, have not survived. The Basque language was spoken in Spain prior to the colonization by Rome and has remained in use into the twenty-first century.
It is, as noted earlier, unique among known languages. Virtually everyone in the nation today speaks Spanish, most as a first but some as a second language. In them, people who do not speak Spanish even as a second language are predictably older and live in remote areas.
None of the regional languages has ever been in official use outside its home region and their speakers have used Spanish in national-level exchanges and in wide-scale commerce throughout modern times.
Proper names, place-names, and street names are no longer translated automatically into Spanish. The unique nature of Basque has always brought personal, family, and place-names into the general consciousness, but Gallego and Catalan words had been easily rendered in Spanish and their native versions left unannounced.A great informative and educational site about Islam, Allah, Muhammad,Quran and Muslim,an Islamic perspective of Scientific issues and information about Muslim Scholarships, and many other Islam and Science related resources.
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