International and provincial boundaries of Pakistan International boundaries of Pakistani terrain non-annotated. A narrow strip of Afghanistan territory called the Wakhan Corridor extends between Pakistan and Tajikistan. It carries on south-eastward and ends near the Karakoram Pass.
Salinity Concentration of dissolved salts found in a sample of water. Measured as the total amount of dissolved salts in parts per thousand.
Seawater has an average salinity of about 34 parts per thousand. Salinization Pedogenic process that concentrates salts at or near the soil surface because evapotranspiration greatly exceeds water inputs from precipitation.
Salt 1 The mineral sodium chloride. Saltation Transport of sediment initiated by moving air or water where particles move from a resting surface to the transport medium in quick continuous repeated cycles.
Salt Marsh Coastal wetland ecosystem that is inundated for some period of time by seawater. Plants that exist in this community have special adaptation to survive in the presence of high salinities in their immediate environment.
Saltwater Intrusion The invasion of saltwater into freshwater aquifers in coastal and inland areas.
This condition can be cause when groundwaterwhich charges the aquifer, is withdrawn faster than it is recharged by precipitation. Sample A sample is a subset group of data selected from a larger population group.
Most samples are drawn at random to guaranty equal representation in the data. Sand Mineral particle with a size between 0. Also see clay and silt.
Sand Dune A hill or ridge of aeolian sand deposits with a minimum height of less than one meter and a maximum height of about 50 meters. Found in hot deserts and along sandy coastlines.
A large region of sand and sand dunes in a desert. Common to erg deserts. Sand Sheet Deposit of sometimes stratified less well sorted sand that almost resemble dunes. Common in northern Europe. Believed to form when windblown materials settle on areas of patchy snow. A type of sedimentary rock that contains a large quantity of weathered quartz grains.
Another term used for wind ripples. Sand Wedge A form of ice wedge that contains accumulations of wind blown sand in long vertical layers. A form of periglacial ground ice.
Santa Ana Wind A warm, dry chinook like wind that occurs in southern California. Originates from the east off an elevated desert plateau. This rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate 9. Saturation Atmospheric condition where water is changing its phase to liquid or solid.
Generally, this process is caused by the cooling of the atmosphere. Saturation Mixing Ratio Mass of water vapor that a kilogram of dry air can hold at saturation. Savanna A tropical or sub-tropical plant community characterized by trees and shrubs scattered among a cover of grasses, herbs and forbs.
The climate of a savanna is tropical with a dry season occurring in the low Sun period of the year. Extensive movements of soilsedimentand rock material caused by humans. Scattering Atmospheric Is an atmospheric process where small particles and gas molecules diffuse part of the incoming solar radiation in random directions without any alteration to the wavelength of the electromagnetic energy.
A significant proportion of scattered shortwave solar radiation is redirected back to space. The amount of scattering that takes place is dependent on two factors:A numeric string can identify any hydrologic unit, at any of these levels.
For instance, a Sub-Region is identifiable by a four-digit code (i.e. ). Find out more about studying Geography BA Hons (L) at Lancaster University. Conservation scientists and foresters work for governments (federal, state, and local), on privately owned lands, or in social advocacy organizations.
The median annual wage for conservation scientists was $61, in May The median annual wage for foresters was $60, in May Employment. The Geospatial Data Gateway (GDG) provides access to a map library of over high resolution vector and raster layers in the Geospatial Data Warehouse. The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.
Water Quality. Excess nutrients in runoff are a major threat to water quality. The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Table 2. English references for 1st through 4th level units in Virginia.