Universities Knowledge acquisition is the process of absorbing and storing new information in memory, the success of which is often gauged by how well the information can later be remembered retrieved from memory.
The process of storing and retrieving information depends heavily on the representation and organization of the information. Moreover, the utility of knowledge can also be influenced by how the information is structured. For example, a bus schedule can be represented in the form of a map or a timetable.
On the one hand, a timetable provides quick and easy access to the arrival time for each bus, but does little for finding where a particular stop is situated. Both forms of representation are useful, but it is important to select the representation most appropriate for the task at hand.
Similarly, knowledge acquisition can be improved by considering the purpose and function of the desired information. Knowledge Representation and Organization There are numerous theories of how knowledge is represented and organized in the mind, including rule-based production models, distributed networks, and propositional models.
However, these theories are all fundamentally based on the concept of semantic networks. A semantic network is a method of representing knowledge as a system of connections between concepts in memory. Semantic Networks According to semantic network models, knowledge is organized based on meaning, such that semantically related concepts are interconnected.
Knowledge networks are typically represented as diagrams of nodes i. The nodes and links are given numerical weights to represent their strengths in memory.
These link strengths are represented here in terms of line width. Similarly, some nodes in Figure 1 are printed in bold type to represent their strength in memory. Mental excitation, or activation, spreads automatically from one concept to another related concept.
These concepts are primed, and thus more easily recognized or retrieved from memory. A word is more quickly recognized if it follows a semantically related word.
This result supports the assumption that se mantically related concepts are more strongly connected than unrelated concepts. Network models represent more than simple associations.
They must represent the ideas and complex relationships that comprise knowledge and comprehension. Educators have successfully used similar diagrams, called concept maps, to communicate important relations and attributes among the key concepts of a lesson.
Types of Knowledge There are numerous types of knowledge, but the most important distinction is between declarative and procedural knowledge. Knowledge of how to drive a car, solve a multiplication problem, or throw a football are all forms of procedural knowledge, called procedures or productions.
Procedural knowledge may begin as declarative knowledge, but is proceduralized with practice. For example, when first learning to drive a car, you may be told to "put the key in the ignition to start the car," which is a declarative statement. However, after starting the car numerous times, this act becomes automatic and is completed with little thought.
Indeed, procedural knowledge tends to be accessed automatically and require little attention. It also tends to be more durable less susceptible to forgetting than declarative knowledge. Knowledge Acquisition Listed below are five guidelines for knowledge acquisition that emerge from how knowledge is represented and organized.
Process the material semantically. Knowledge is organized semantically; therefore, knowledge acquisition is optimized when the learner focuses on the meaning of the new material.
Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving were among the first to provide evidence for the importance of semantic processing. In their studies, participants answered questions concerning FIGURE 2 target words that varied according to the depth of processing involved.
For example, semantic questions e. Craik and colleagues found that words processed semantically were better learned than words processed phonemically or structurally. Further studies have confirmed that learning benefits from greater semantic processing of the material.
Process and retrieve information frequently. A second learning principle is to test and retrieve the information numerous times. Retrieving, or self-producing, information can be contrasted with simply reading or copying it.As for the outlook, Verizon said it sees revenue growth of low-single digit percentage rates.
Earnings per share will grow at the same clip with capital spending of $17 billion to $ billion. UltiPro Talent Acquisition Product Tour A unique and engaging recruiting and onboarding experience Creating an inviting and engaging experience for candidates and new hires helps foster successful relationships that enable your employees and your organization to thrive.
Richmond Capital Partners are the leading UK provider of mergers & acquisitions and business disposal services to print, packaging, marketing & engineering. Michael D. Fascitelli is the Founder of MDF Capital LLC and Co-Founder and Managing Partner of Imperial Companies.
Mr. Fascitelli previously served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado Realty Trust as well as President of Alexander’s Inc. Connections and Information Acquisition in Capital Allocation Mariassunta Giannetti Stockholm School of Economics, CEPR and ECGI [email protected] Combination creates a leading global communications company with extensive global footprint, strong product and IT services portfolio.
MONROE, La., Nov.
1, /PRNewswire/ -- CenturyLink, Inc. (NYSE: CTL) has completed its acquisition of Level 3 Communications, metin2sell.com combination of CenturyLink and Level 3 creates a leading global network services company capable of providing .