An introduction to the issue of kidney stones

Kidney stones are formed in the kidneys when chemicals crystallize in the urine. These stones are usually very small, but depending on where it a stone is located and if it obstructs or prevents urine from draining the issue can be aggravated. Symptoms Intense and sudden pain located in the side or mid-back Cannot find comfortable position, often writhes in pain Sweating, nausea, vomiting Diagnosis Many conditions are similar to the symptoms of kidney stones, so the doctor may need to order tests to confirm that kidney stones are present. Computerized tomography CT is the most commonly used test.

An introduction to the issue of kidney stones

Signs and symptoms[ edit ] Diagram showing the typical location of renal colicbelow the rib cage to just above the pelvis The hallmark of a stone that obstructs the ureter or renal pelvis is excruciating, intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the inner thigh.

An introduction to the issue of kidney stones

It typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes caused by peristaltic contractions of the ureter as it attempts to expel the stone. Risk factors[ edit ] Dehydration from low fluid intake is a major factor in stone formation.

High dietary intake of animal protein[11] sodiumsugars including honey, refined sugarsfructose and high fructose corn syrup[16] oxalate[17] grapefruit juiceand apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.

This is typically done with a hour urine collection. The urine is analyzed for features that promote stone formation. In the United States, kidney stone formation was used as an indicator of excess calcium intake by the Reference Daily Intake committee for calcium in adults.

As the amount of calcium intake decreases, the amount of oxalate available for absorption into the bloodstream increases; this oxalate is then excreted in greater amounts into the urine by the kidneys. In the urine, oxalate is a very strong promoter of calcium oxalate precipitation—about 15 times stronger than calcium.

A study found that diets low in calcium are associated with a higher overall risk for kidney stone formation. For example, by increasing urinary calcium excretion, high dietary sodium may increase the risk of stone formation. Magnesium inhibits stone formation.

Consumption of animal protein creates an acid load that increases urinary excretion of calcium and uric acid and reduced citrate. Urinary excretion of excess sulfurous amino acids e. Excessive vitamin D supplementation may increase the risk of stone formation by increasing the intestinal absorption of calcium; correction of a deficiency does not.

However, some people have theorized that certain behaviors associated with frequent and binge drinking can lead to dehydration, which can, in turn, lead to the development of kidney stones. Staghorn kidney stones are considerably larger. Calcium and oxalate come together to make the crystal nucleus.

Supersaturation promotes their combination as does inhibition. Continued deposition at the renal papillae leads to the growth of the kidney stones.

Kidney stones grow and collect debris. In the case where the kidney stones block all routes to the renal papillae, this can cause severe discomfort. The complete staghorn stone forms and retention occurs.


Smaller solids that break off can become trapped in the urinary glands causing discomfort. Displaced stones travel through the ureter. If they cannot be broken down, they must be physically removed by a surgeon. The protective role of citrate is linked to several mechanisms; in fact, citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting crystal growth and aggregation.Introduction.

Kidney stones can be formed by the precipitation or crystallization of minerals and urinary constituents. It is a common problem worldwide manifested with recurrent intermittent pain episodes, surgical interventions, medication consumption which affect the quality of life of the patients.

An Introduction to Kidney Stones - Live Better | Revere Health

Kidney stones in adults are developed from urine crystals containing calcium, uric acid or cystine. Read about kidney stone causes, symptoms, treatment, diet and prevention. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to compare the outcome of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolitripsy (PCNL) following failure of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for patients with renal stones.

METHODS: Participants were 66 adult patients with renal stones 8. Objective. The prevalence of kidney stones varies greatly between ethnic groups and geographic locations, ranging from 8% to 19% in males and from 3% to 5% in females in Western countries.

People with kidney stones face a higher risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly if they also have diabetes, high blood pressure, or frequent urinary tract infections.

Having chronic kidney disease, in turn, can increase the risk for a heart attack.


Kidney stones form when compounds in the urine aggregate into a solid mass (Aggarwal ). Kidney stones can cause extreme pain and urinary blockage in severe cases (UMMC ). About 7% of women and 13% of men in the United States will have at least one bout of kidney stones requiring medical.

Introduction -