History[ edit ] This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, it contains a very long narrative account without clear organization.
Blog Affirmative Action Affirmative Action began as a plan to equalize the educational, employment, and contracting opportunities for minorities and women with opportunities given to their white, male counterparts. Such race-conscious Affirmative Action programs have been the source of much controversy and sometimes violent protests.
Race-conscious affirmative action programs are subject to review under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act ofif practiced by private or public employers and unions, Title VI if practiced by state or private recipients of federal funds, and the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, if practiced by governmental agencies.
At the same time, the Civil Rights Act was being enforced by the federal courts against discriminatory companies, unions, and other institutions. Through those contractor commitments, the department also could indirectly pressure labor unions, who supplied the employees at job sites, to create more ethnically balanced work crews.
One key case in understanding the Civil Rights Act and its intentions was the Griggs v.
Duke Power Company case of That case held that not only is intentional racial discrimination prohibited, but also hiring and employment policies that have perpetuated the effects of past discrimination.
In addition, arbitrary blocks against the employment and advancement of black employees that were unintentional are prohibited and to be removed by private employers.
It was found that test results could not predict the applicant's actual job performance. Further, it discriminated against black applicants who, due to a history of inadequate education in racially segregated schools, would more likely fail the test than their white counterparts. The ruling against Duke revolutionized the Civil Rights Act's enforcement by shifting the focus away from intent and toward a "disparate impact" standard.
The standard holds that it is not always possible to recognize those who would have been hired under employment practices that perpetuate racial exclusion.
It established that companies failing to employ a workforce that reflected the racial makeup of the "local, qualified" labor force, were in violation of the act.
It also set a precedent for outcome-oriented Affirmative Action policies. Prior to the fall ofuniversities had not given racial nor ethnic integration a top priority in awarding admission to their learning institutions.
Since there were so few racial and ethnic minority students who received a Ph. At the same time, Anglo-American philosophy began to change from an indirect treatment of moral and political questions having to do with justice, to actually stating their views. Thus the debate over the legitimacy of Affirmative Action began on university campuses throughout the country, while those institutions were forced to exercise racial and gender preferences in their selection processes.
Bakke, that explicit quotas violated the Equal Protection Clause. They did, however, find it legal to use race as one of many other factors in determining admissions to universities, using informal targets for minority admissions rather than strict quotas.
Two differing opinions were written in the Bakke case.Affirmative action programs were monitored by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Subsequently, affirmative action was broadened to cover women and Native Americans, Hispanics, and other minorities and was extended to colleges and universities and state and federal agencies.
9 days ago · The only real enemy students have to face is the systematic racial inequality that has plagued the United States for decades. The UC system has to strike a balance between catering to California residents and upholding its reputation as the best public school system in the world, and practicing affirmative action guarantees that every high.
4 days ago · The fact that the affirmative-action debate is so emotional, however, also reveals the limitations in attributing to WeChat the current state of Chinese American political engagement. AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tameshnie Deane* 1 Introduction In both the United States of America and South Africa, issues of segregation and discrimination are not new.
In these matters, both countries have a similar 3 Rubio History of Affirmative Action, () Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society.
Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education. Affirmative Action began as a plan to equalize the educational, employment, and contracting opportunities for minorities and women with opportunities given to their white, male counterparts.