Methods employed[ edit ] Feminist scholarship has developed a variety of ways to unpack literature in order to understand its essence through a feminist lens. Gynocriticism was introduced during the time of second wave feminism. The ultimate goal of any of these tools is to uncover and expose patriarchal underlying tensions within novels and interrogate the ways in which our basic literary assumptions about such novels are contingent on female subordination. In this way, the accessibility of literature broadens to a far more inclusive and holistic population.
Published February 16, Overview This essay considers southern literature in terms of generic forms that are, if not uniquely southern, substantially recognizable as contingent upon southern identifiers: Map by Amy Jones.
In defining a text's " southernness ," the matter of its genre might not seem a touchstone of much value. To some, genres are universal categories that describe formal literary conventions, not geo-social preoccupations.
Yet, the South can be said to have its own literary genres — its particular sets of forms or organizing motifs — as much as it has a history and manners.
An overview of southern literature based on a selection of key genres departs substantially from the program of traditional literary histories, which rely upon relatively static, periodic, historical reference points to arrange and provide nomenclatures for southern literature.
This tradition is not without irony, given the other directive that has long governed southern literary study: Anthologies and critical surveys usually gather works into groupings that emphasize specific time and history bound periods: The present essay stresses the organizational forms, motifs, and stylistic conventions that can delineate the shape and presentation of a text the text's genre, in other words but also understands these matters as inevitably representing and promoting specific versions of culture.
The claim to order that is presented here highlights selected genres indelibly associated with the South: Southern literature is substantially recognizable as contingent upon certain identifiers: For instance, to group southern literature under the headings " antebellum " and "postbellum" makes the Civil War the great rationale of literary production.
However, if we look at nineteenth century southern literature under the headings of thematic or stylistic or plot-oriented genres that authors chose during the time, what we see is that the South's race-based institution of slavery was the driving force behind literary production.
A southern slavocracy, sectionalist and ultimately nationalist, is what called into being the first, and in many ways most distinctively southern genres. Slavery and the racial divisions it enforced by law and custom resulted in a multitude of literary forms of response, engagement, and argument: To claim that there are "southern" genres of literature might seem to divorce the South's writing from some larger concept of value, and indeed southern writers have chafed under the sectional or regional label, regardless of how the term "southern" was being applied to their productions.
In delineating generic headings, the overview that follows is not a "historical coverage" model. Any arrangement that a literary historian might choose results in inclusions and exclusions based on both literary and political ideologies that privilege certain values—and certain literary forms or discourses—over others.
The preference that an overview of southern literature by genre asserts is that of forms, motifs, and conventions, but this preference also reflects the current theoretical argument that genres are codes constructed from, as well as speaking to, historical contingency.
The rubric "southern" has meant different things to differently identified groups at different times. The literary label "southern" asserts its various meanings in part through the distinctive sets of works we can find that practice similar modes of expression, organization, and motive—in other words, genres.
Edited and published by Thomas W. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Images are in the public domain. We might begin to address definitional questions by noting that southern literature is itself a genre: The first southern literatures and indeed the first critical pronouncements about southern literature appeared at a time when the South, as a section of the United States, was beginning to understand itself in terms of cultural and political difference—in terms of what its way of life was not, and what it was positioned against.
In the s, the North argued for this sense of difference from without, through abolitionist societies and popular writing that began to flood media outlets.
One of the earliest statements of what southern literature needed to be and to do was announced in one of the section's first literary journals, the Southern Literary Messenger. Its inaugural issue called for southerners to support a distinctly southern, i.
Byin much more strident tones, the Messenger was dictating "The Duty of Southern Authors" in an editorial.
Then and now, insiders and outsiders involved in the dynamics of writing about place have both shaped and relied upon types, themes, and conventions that come to define particular places as well as modes of expression.
The ideological as well as artistic processes that identified the first southern genres continued to do so throughout the twentieth century, from the Southern Agrarians' revolt against a national urban-industrial complex in the s, embodied in pastoral forms, to the anti-establishment, anti-"Southern Living" agendas of self-identified Poor South writers of recent times, embodied in what we have come to call "Grit Lit.Definition of feminist literary criticism and how it challenges male assumptions, plus examples of approaches and books with a feminist perspective.
Cyberpunk Women, Feminism and Science Fiction: A Critical Study. Critical race theory found its intellectual origins in the crossroads of several movements: critical legal studies, a scholarly movement in which the law was considered to be an instrument for maintaining the status quo rather than a set of abstract rational principles; the civil rights and Black Power movements, with their interests in redress.
Critical Essays Perspectives on Black Boy Bookmark this page Manage My Reading List Until Wright's Native Son, most black fiction was pretty much limited to .
It not only won the Booker Prize for Fiction and high critical acclaim, but was also a great commercial success, marking the beginning of Byatt's wider appeal to . This is the non-fiction media literacy we all need in the era of Trump. This article was originally published on The Conversation.
Read the original article. If it continues the intriguing layering of fiction and non-fiction that Baron Cohen started with Ali G, Borat and Brüno, there is an opportunity to return viewers to the necessary critical.