Such sentiments, he argues, helped lead to a gradual decline in both the power and authority of European monarchs; a form of government that had ruled the European continent for centuries, unchallenged.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Revolution and the growth of industrial society, — Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events.
The French Revolution broke out inand its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, cultureand diplomacy during the late 19th century. In between these boundaries—the one opening a new set of trends, the other bringing long-standing tensions to a head—much of modern Europe was defined.
Europe during this year span was both united and deeply divided.
A number of basic cultural trends, including new literary styles and the spread of science, ran through the entire continent. European states were increasingly locked in diplomatic interaction, culminating in continentwide alliance systems after At the same time, this was a century of growing nationalismin which individual states jealously protected their identities and indeed established more rigorous border controls than ever before.
Finally, the European continent was to an extent divided between two zones of differential development. Changes such as the Industrial Revolution and political liberalization spread first and fastest in western Europe—Britain, France, the Low CountriesScandinavia, and, to an extent, Germany and Italy.
Eastern and southern Europe, more rural at the outset of the period, changed more slowly and in somewhat different ways. Europe witnessed important common patterns and increasing interconnections, but these developments must be assessed in terms of nation-state divisions and, even more, of larger regional differences.
Some trends, including the ongoing impact of the French Revolution, ran through virtually the entire 19th century.
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Other characteristics, however, had a shorter life span. Some historians prefer to divide 19th-century history into relatively small chunks.
Thus, — is defined by the French Revolution and Napoleon; —48 forms a period of reaction and adjustment; —71 is dominated by a new round of revolution and the unifications of the German and Italian nations; and —, an age of imperialism, is shaped by new kinds of political debate and the pressures that culminated in war.
Overriding these important markers, however, a simpler division can also be useful. Between and Europe dealt with the forces of political revolution and the first impact of the Industrial Revolution. Between and a fuller industrial society emerged, including new forms of states and of diplomatic and military alignments.
The midth century, in either formulation, looms as a particularly important point of transition within the extended 19th century.European Revolutions and the European System Parliament having won the Civil War and reigning supreme through Oliver Cromwell, England turned immediately to her first phase of serious expansion overseas, laying the foundations of British commercial and naval power, finally of the British colonial empire: Charles I was executed in , the.
Europe’s scientiﬁc revolution gave rise not only to the industrial revol- ution of the late eighteenth and nineteenth century but also to the great ﬂour ishing of intellectual and creative fervent that characterized European capitals such as Berlin.
Throughout Charles Breunig’s book, The Age of Revolution and Reaction: , the author examines 19th Century European history from the time of the French Revolution to the revolutions of While the book’s main purpose is to provide a detailed overview and analysis of the first half of.
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16, , Forthcoming 34 Pages Posted: 30 Sep The Enlightenment was both a movement and a state of mind. The term represents a phase in the intellectual history of Europe, but it also serves to define programs of reform in which influential literati, inspired by a common faith in the possibility of a better world, outlined specific targets for criticism and proposals for action.
1 point Extends the argument by explaining the connections between the argument and ONE of the following: a) A development in a different historical period, situation, era, or geographical area.